Mobile home parks, how they got here: Part 1, before World War II

April 16, 2007 | Credit, Markets, Mobile homes, Regulation, Subprime

[Some previous posts on mobile homes may be found here:

 

Attempt to rezone: Paradise Park, Highlands, New Jersey: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part 6, Part 7

Land worth $510 million!: Briny Breezes, Florida: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3

Gouging in space rent: Modesto, California: Part 1, Part 2

Contrast in state laws influences policy: A tale of two states

Co-op seeking to buy its land: Seattle, the price of security

Rezoning moratorium: Davie, Florida: Time out!]

 

Even though I have seen mobile homes in Ireland (where they are mainly used as resort cottages), to me they are quintessentially American. No surprise, therefore, that they are an American invention, a centaur-like fusion —

 

Centaur

I can see where that gives you an advantage

 

— of our preoccupations of the American Dream and the American Experience.

 

American_dream_logo

 

To most Americans, mobile homes (like the poor) have always been with us, yet they came from somewhere. And like any person’s family tree,

 

Family_tree

And we all came from Jane Austen, didn’t we?

 

the where and how, as chronicled in John Grissim’s Guide to Mobile Homes, Chapter 1, tells us much about the why of mobile homes. Here, extracted liberally (but fairly) from Mr. Grissim’s fascinating story, is the abbreviated history of mobile homes:

 

During the 1920s, following World War I, a great pent-up restlessness created by the war swept the country, finding expression in America’s growing love affair with the automobile, and with traveling. The growth in car ownership in that decade alone was breathtaking-from 9.2 million in 1920 to a staggering 23 million by 1930.

 

Motor_home_1917

Home with a running board, 1917

 

By the way, it is not only we Americans who love cars; as Europeans have become richer, they too have embraced the car, and its accompanying ‘sprawl’.

 

By the mid-1920s, with family auto camping trips a new and popular pastime, some car campers began building their own tent trailers, little more than folding canvas tents on a wooden platform mounted on a single axle. The idea caught on and within a few years a number of companies were marketing recreational tent trailers.

 

Mobile_home_1930_travelers_dream

The Traveler’s Dream!

 

The great disadvantage of most housing is its immobility — make a bad bet, and you are stuck with it permanently. Conversely, a moveable accommodation, even if little more than the embryonic house, offers that sense of camping out which makes even the most cramped accommodations bearable. Or, in a less affluent time, affordable:

 

The Great Depression in the early 1930s generated enormous population shifts throughout the country as hundreds of thousands of people moved to other regions to escape poverty and to start new lives. From the drought-stricken Dustbowl alone thousands of families headed west to California.

 

Okies_on_the_road

Moving house and home in a Model T

 

With little or no housing available to the new arrivals, many turned to travel trailers as full-time living accommodations. It wasn’t long before campgrounds that accepted these semi-permanent tenants were dubbed trailers parks (their concrete urban counterparts were trailer courts). By 1938, the American Automobile Association put the total number of travel trailers at 300,000 and estimated perhaps 10% of them were being used for extended or full-time housing, not recreational travel.

 

Trailer_park_1935

Drive up and settle, and presto! Community

 

Suddenly what once was a luxury becomes a necessity. As with other spontaneous communities, they set down roots where land was cheapest, which led (via The law of economic gravity) to instantly created economically rational slums:

 

It was this 10% of the so-called “trailer-ite” population that became the focus of some municipalities around the country. Irate citizens, shocked by what they regarded as unsightly “trailer slums” peopled by transients of questionable character, demanded their abatement.

 

Mobile_home_park_1939

Questionable character?

 

As with other slum types, even before it had a name, NIMBYism appeared, using its traditional maneuver, zoning of the righteous snobs:

 

Before the end of the decade many towns and cities passed exclusionary zoning and ordinances that prohibited the use of trailers as housing, banished them from the city limits, or to commercial trailer courts, or required occupied trailers to be moved every few days.

 

Remarkable here is that the extreme foot-traffic density (if low-efficiency usage) that characterizes many mobile home communities today arose not simply from economic pressure but also as a result of conscious choice. This was poverty concentration with a vengeance.

 

Xena_vengeance

We have to avenge poverty concentration!

 

For its part the industry, fearing government regulation, steered clear of promoting trailers for housing, and instead focused on trailers as recreational accessories for vacationers.

 

Remarkable here is that the extreme foot-traffic density (if low-efficiency usage) that characterizes many mobile home communities today arose not simply from economic pressure but also as a result of conscious choice. This was poverty concentration with a vengeance.

 

Then fate intervened, in the form of an emergency ….

 

Emergency

 

World War II and the first house trailer

 

These controversies were all but forgotten as World War II triggered a huge immediate demand for temporary wartime housing for workers at defense plants, in mines and elsewhere. The travel trailer industry responded quickly by designing for government use a Spartan 22-foot-long, eight-foot-wide trailer with a canvas top that included a kitchen and bathroom-the first true house trailer. The government ended up buying 35,000 of these units at $750 per trailer, and constructing 8,500 trailer parks to site them.

 

Oak_ridge_wwii

A secret city until the war ended

 

Sounds like Hurricane Katrina, from Nowhere to New Town:

 

The government also authorized two more wartime housing designs, one consisting of a factory-built single housing unit that could be trucked to a site, hooked to utilities and immediately occupied.

 

Expediency and urgency drive invention:

 

The second design was comprised of two sections that were towed to a site and joined together to form a single two-story home.

 

Invention drives supply:

 

In an astonishingly short 90 days, a thousand of these two-section homes — precursors of today’s manufactured home — were built and sited at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for workers at the Manhattan Project.

 

Mobile_home_park_minuteman_missile_2

The mobile home park at the Minuteman missile site, similar to the original Oak Ridge

 

For Oak Ridge, jobs and economic growth turned what once had been forest, and then was barely more than an encampment, is today a thriving and affluent community of 27,000 souls.

 

Then the war ended, and home came the GI’s, and American demand surged, with the mobile home a lower-end alternative to the Levittowns:

 

Mobile home parks and the rise of snob zoning

 

There to accommodate these new dwellings were the first true mobile home parks, renting cheek-by-jowl sites, sewer connections and utility hookups for the benefit of permanent residents. Thousands of mobile home parks sprung up throughout the country.

 

Now comes a curious historical moment, when the commodity’s vendors realized they had a critical vulnerability, and in prophylactic self-defense they made a consumer-protection move:

 

The manufacturers, realizing their continued success depended on the availability of parks (and high-quality ones at that) formed a manufacturers group that provided developers with trailer park designs and issued an annual ratings guide for consumers.

 

Up to now, this blog has devoted only little discussion to the ecosystemically beneficial roles that trade associations may play, but there were two — standardization and consumer protection — and here is a third: production evangelism:

 

During a span of more than 20 years, the group helped create thousands of mobile home parks, always striving for their acceptance as respectable housing within the larger community.

 

The biggest advocates for mobile home owners were thus the owners themselves — who are the logical and politically most potent voice — but mobile home manufacturers and vendors. Here we have another incongruous dysfunctionality of sundering land from property, and improvement from ownership:

 

Cleaver

I think you won’t be very functional after this

 

[Continued tomorrow in Part 2.]